Hello World session

Intro :
The aim is to make a map with all the countries and then to paint the range of all the nuclear missiles

Tools :

Three axis rotation 
dimendion ranges: latitude:  -90, 90 bounded;  longitude: 0, 360 circular (goes around forever anf ever)

D3 creates SVG graphics, which can be embedded into a webpage
Origin is north-west of the page :) - so flipped considering the classical geographic system
A straight line on a sphere is called a geodesique

Longitude/Latitude -> meridian fight 

D3.js projections : 

== PG & beyond


Pierre Marchand started
looking at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Well-known_text
we cannot draw curves
why do we do geometry in geography
a lot of geographic system is dictated by a consoritum
they write a lot of standards
you can see that there is a lot of XML
it smells like the 90s
there is all this culture of making a system that is well documented and extensible
that ends up as a mess
and we see these three things
the maps on the web are based on json
you didn't go into geojson
it is a completely different way of encoding spatial data
it is very simple compared to what we will see now

the other component that we can go through
it is an implementation of the ogc standard
it is a  mix of geography and the SQL standard

SQL is a way to access databases
90percent of public facing services are backed by this kind of databases
for a few years now security has become important on the web
there are a lot of problems with security
one problem that sites have is SQL injection
the things that you write into forms have to be stored in the DB
and you can use the form to "inject" commands
like remove everything in the DB

is an implementation of SQL/MM
it is making requests on a database to address geographic needs

let's look at documentation
chapter 8
a successful open source project implementing a relational database is postgreSQL
and the implementation is called PostGIS
which gives a lot of functions to deal with geometries

it is like your regular spreadsheet thing
you have columns and rows and you can put things in there that you can call by column name
in PostGIS you can add a column that holds geometric shapes
meaning you can have geometric operators in the queries

everything is converging to this SQL thing
it is implemented with Oracle
a special extension of a DB product
MS SQL server implements it like this, too
you have a lot of operations, intersections, reprojections

this is how we work with spatial data
what is not covered by the SQL thing is that how objects relate to each other

let's say you draw two buildings
they share something, a common wall
it is useful, but it is very difficult to reason about it
the idea is that there are extensions to the SQL thing that take this into account?
one kind of relationship is that something is on the left or right of something
and i think we can play with this and imagine a lot of other relationship
if we imagine a shape that is not a wall, which has one side or the other
but imagine relationships that are more complex
then we can start thinking about relationships in space
there is an attempt to deal with temporal things
it is currently a kind of failure
if you search in Chapter 8, you may have something about temporal support
4 functions
you can see where it is coming from: this is about fleet management
it comes from industry
even though it is open source, the specification and building of standards take a lot of money

this is for quick movements
like missiles but not the coastline moving slowly

chapter 11 is on topology: it is too complex
i wanted to play with it
i really love it, i ran into this a few years ago
the documentation is kind of unusual
it references a talk
and a couple of slides to figure out what it is


all this vocabulary about graphs and how it is implemented is very nice
ido they touch, do they have explicit relationships?
there is still this kind of thing as face
they implement a graph database on PostGIS
but they don't use the same terminology that you find in graph databases
my idea is that we can link to the other people working on vocabularies
because it is easily connected to graphs
you have all the relationships to express
subject, predicate, object
you can express a lot of things like
this is on the left of that, this is on top of this
how all of these things can merge in something that we can craft
something that maybe can draw
i was thinking about all of this super digital technologies and the guy that draws points on a map

you were saying that the way jean luc does things is counter intuitive but it is better to find your way on a map
this morning you were working on a super global view of the earth
it is a bit like charlie chaplin playing with the globe
i was looking at what you were doing from time to time
this globe spinning
you are playing with the globe
on the other hand you have something like what jean luc presented
commune after commune
to get information that is not geographically imprecise
it cannot be overlayed on a map that is regular
but it was about experiences of the field, they asked people, what is after this road
this kind of experience of space does not find a lot of ways to get into our spatial database systems
it gets lost
what we have is this kind of global information system that is supposed to be interoperable
and everything that is supposed to lead us to a global world that is made up of one data structure
how to escape this
maybe by this other relationship between things
not just left and right but another way to express this

this is where R-trees come back https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/R-tree
this way of indexing 
a database like this is made to store thousands and millions of records
and at some point you need to select based on geometries
you don't want to compare all the world to your reference geometry
r-tree tries to make boxes where you try to make other boxes that are tiny elements of your database
if you want to reach this area, you only get this and this square
'this does not have a unique implementation
depending on your implementation you have a different r-tree
it changes a lot depending on whether you insert everything at once
the visualization shows the different ways of building r-tree
we don't see anything valuable, but this one is interesting, it is r-tree is rectangles, but it is m-trees: i am not sure what they are doing
nested spherical pages

binary trees
you try to balance a tree
something is on the left or right
and you find your path on the tree
the r-tree is a non-binary tree
i thought it would be appropriate for the transmarcations workshop
we can have an experiment to draw it
and you can draw rectangles
and when you decide to draw something you decide, do i need to divide this rectangle into two or more
these are things i would like to work on
this graph that i don't understand well yet
and how this could fit in this structure and this kind of visualization
how everything could be made without computers

i think the tools we have to operate these ideas
they are so structured around ideas that are not relevant to what we are doing here
the needs of theindustry and army
we would kind of drift away from where we want to experiment
i was trying to play with the graph thing in PostGIS
it is so complex that i lost track of what i was trying to do reading the documentation
i can maybe do something that is completely wrong that fits my imagination
maybe we can see how we can put this whole thing into a comptuer system and see what it spits out

to insert some topology into the discussion?

lacan: the desire expressed in topology
See https://i.pinimg.com/736x/0a/82/39/0a8239f125898c5533ef409258152e95--graf-psychedelic.jpg

what is the chain of connection of the data in the database and the pretty interface that we saw with philip in the morning?
a lot of geographic data is really expensive to gather
with jean-luc, to cover all of belgium was 15 years with a team of 12 or 16people
these people were using, they don't, but they value their data a lot
the export subset of their data
for whatever reason
in europe, there are legal reasons to do this
the INSPIRE directive requires a lot of administration to share the information that they have got
this is a reason why, it is often administration that release this kind of finromation
researchers to it a bit
you have open street maps
for 12 yeras
it is very interesting for different aspects
they generate a lot of data 
they do not store it as an sql, but as a graph with nodes and edges
it is a mess to process this data with tools from the industry
you need it to be structures as a PostGIS table
the data that is stored by open steet map is a huge graph
it is difficult to process this global file
the dump
the planetfile
they release it, they used to a diff everyday
now to compute the planet file takes 8-9 hours
they have a problem there
so they release it once a week
but they have  feed where you can follow the changes in real time

can you give an example of how it changes for an object to be stored as a graph and relational database
i know postgis a little better than open street map
it is more complicated
let's say you are going to ...

not everybody knows what a graph is

there was a openstreetmap app
that was used in haiti to draw everything that was erased due to the earthquake
openstreetmaptracker allowed you to do it

it was for large scale? it is gps, so the precision in small space???

it is intresting. i have one of the maps, you load it on the world map to understand what happened
there was one dot on a really large scale
and i thought it was garbage
but when i zoomed in, i thought it was a huge event
a fight or something
it was a rainy day, i managed to recognize it because of the sounds
i record sounds and match them together
i cannot geolocalize the sound
eventually i realized that it was one day where it was reaining too much
and we could not go out of the tent
and there are two places i go to the bathroom
the tent was very small
i think, because it is not precise
it is full of things
i didn't move that much
it was time

especially if it is cloudy, you will have your gps jump a lot
yes, it was cloudy and it was one of the longest maps that i had done
it went really crazy

you said what jean luc was making is better for finding your way than google maps?
this specific example of going from one place to another
the precision was about the precision of directions to do this
there was not this idea that there could or should be a mathematical system
how this globe is mapping onto this paper
you follow this for this amount of time
this is a good value for distances as well
then you will pass this point of interest
an dyou are there
there was a relationship between all these indications from the map and the shape
to make it consistent that you if you g
you can see all these maps of unknown countries in weird shapes which is different now that we have satellite images
it doesn't matter, cause it is how these things relate to each other in this local sitaution
the relationship has ashape actually

you want to describe relationships between things
for this people try to reduce it to the shortest form of expression
what you want to do is say
A -> B
A has a relationship to B
so you can present it like this (A,B)
and if you then say B is related to C, (B,C)
and then you say (B,D) it starts to get complicated

you can kind of qualify and label the relationship
let's label the relatinship as ArB
and you have AgB
You have a more complex, but maybe I wouldn't say that 
there are a lot of types of relationships
the A is the subject, the second element is the predicate and the last is the Object

in a graph you can do a lot of things, you can compute the shortest distance between a thing and another thing
if you have constraints on relationships
how friend of friend thing works
you can

nodes, edges (relationships)
who defines relationships?
you can completely make it up.
there are practices and habits, good and less good practices
there is a wiki to define that

i was thinking in relationship to graphs?
is it on wikipedia
there are acceptable and minority pratices that are repressed
self-appointed editing
i don't know enough to know that there is repression
but surely discussion among the groups that are trying to maintain
if you are in a minority
some lgbt groups wanted to express toilettes and cruising places with more detail
it is called open street map
so are you describing, what are you describing
the planet, the roads, the streets
the animals of the planet, the usage
it can kind of contain everything
where do you stop and start
there is dsicussion but i think it is mostly done by usage
for example, really local, i put a personal message on open street map and i asked them to let it live for a while
it was a vandalism
it is not the idea of open street map to be personal
it lasted for a few months
in the past it would have been wiped in a few hours or days
and you can participate

but on wikipedia, it is really horrible
there is suppression of minority and dissent
in  my eexperience in brussels you can discuss with the person who are monitoring

the splitting of sudan
you have one polygon becoming two polygons
the old border is thisline and the new border were these two lines
in natural earth
a database that you can use for drawing borders
this and this point were not mapped well to this border
and there was a disconnection between borders
when you draw what country is next to which one
it is about the same coordinates, but there is a small gap and if you zoom you will see it in pixels
if you try to draw the limits of land
you get a fake lake coming in
because the system sees the whole
and something seeps in
that was an experience of graphs applied

philip: my interest in graphs is making graphs from data points with no connection
try to make groups of that, but i don't know what application that may have

interested in mapping something but don't know what

    interested in critical technology studies
    how the database can be reimagined
    trying to integrate temporality
    or more personal graphing strategies
    and how they can be baked into a data structure would be great

    i can also help wherever necessary
    it was mentioned, i htink
    words in different langauges with different meanings
    so i thought of a map that shows what a word means in this area

pierre t:
    i am interested in the fact that there is the world plus places somewhere
    i want to experiment with a tool for writing on a map
    something like using the gps coordinates of a city to place text or words
    we can create a book that we can read but it is not a book but a ma, how do you read this, how can the words be distributed
    experimenting in reading in 2-d
    it can be really nice if we know the distance between the point of interest
    word (connotation) can change depending of the zoom

i like the idea of doing something with time
creating a lot of layers
the relationship between the layers
the link with the legibility of things
if it is layered do we understand more
drawing, using different tools and collapsing them
trying to translate from drawin with a piece of paper to computer
how does the computer under

    i am interested in something that is temporal, strentching and how things change

    i experiment with pierre on this idea of making a link between text and space, literally
    i am also interested in the graph stuff


    mapping words or time
pierre h:
    time and try to escape the eye fucks the world (Harraway)
    our sense of the view or sight is so powerful, it fills everything
    in cartography we present time with layer
    and to reverse it and have continuity in time and layers somewhere else
    layers mean separation, 
    if we do it visually
    translation each time
    and maybe the graph thing could serve to shift our minds

    i don't know what to choose
    i am the last one
    i like the graph stuff without computer
    something that stays analogic

Seda: a little description of dynamic conceptions of space

FRIDAY WORKING SESSION -----------------------------------------------

There is an annex to mapping tools to do curves
ArGIS, then QGIS can do curves

why were there no curves?
these data structures were not there to produce graphics but to store data structures

you know the story about the precise shape of the beach

when you try to shape of brittany
it is fractal: the closer you look at it, you see more details, at the end it is just straight lines

it is not difficult to make a curve from straight lines

free fall and direction
Hito Steyerl -> In Free Fall

if we think that there is a gravity in both directions
the channel
la manche
you can see that as a force that is so powerful that you have to block
if you leave it it flows
to be standing there is a struggle

how do you get from straight lines to the lesbian curve?
you make some decisions

there are basic lines
two control points to get the parameters fo the curve
you have your endpoints and you decide
that to have a control point here and there
the control points are not visible, something you manipulate it in your graphic library
you have another decision for this segment

if you want to have something that is more systematic

you divide the path
there is an inflection
whatever package you have
you have the two control points

you need some control points not to be straight!!!
this is why i said you need control points, they determine your curve.

to be straight is also being directed towards straightness
that means that youa re getting away from something else


not sure what we can do with this
are we trying to bend curves or straightlines

can you tell more about: sexualizing space
it is really abstract
she uses deep metaphors, like with orientation
pontier/husserl is at a stable point
so when somebody enters his office they will be oriented differently
she takes sexual orientation to a level of abstraction in phenomenology and philosoph
she tries to see how you can bend phenomenology to make it queer

at a certain level i don't see how we can use it practically

it relates to the topology thing
if there is going towards something is leave something else
then you have two sides of the line
in PostGIS
they imagine that there is a left and right side
now we see that there is forward and behind
we almost have cardinality now!?!?!!!

we have to use what is there
and find a path with what is there
concerning the question of sexual orientation
she is talking about question about time and direction

when i was reading the GPX file
i was bit surprised that there is a record of the positino of the compass
for each data point
as an object, this compass, there is a north
is it straight or not

the compass is an object that we can work on
i think hito bight bring us top and bottom

the excerpts are connected to the question of points and lines

"Our life courses follow a certain sequence, which is also a matter of following a direction 
or of being directed in a certain way (birth, childhood, adolescence, marriage, 
reproduction, death), as Judith Halberstam has shown us in her reflections on the 
“temporality” of the family and the expenditure of family time.

The concept of orientations allows us to expose how life gets directed through the very requirement that we follow what is already given to us. For a life to count as a good life, 
it must return the debt of its life by taking on the direction promised as a social 
good, which means imagining one’s futurity in terms of reaching certain points 
along a life course. Such points accumulate, creating the impression of a straight 
line. To follow such a line might be a way to become straight, by not deviating at 
any point."

compass can be a color
we can express orientation with a color

the abstraction of the hue is 360 degrees/units
that is a pure abstraction, it is a wave length but it has been abstracted like that

the idea of dissolution
the way that clouds can move easily without boundaries
but they dissolve at some point
it would be a good idea to compare to people in calais who are stuck in a place because of the boundaries
and they cannot be free or dissolved because they are humans
maybe we can extrapolate a little on that
cross the data of the people in calais and the positino of clouds at the same time and the way that people move in the camp and the way that clouds move at the same time and same place

i don't know if it is possible to cross this dta, to see what happens then

there was also this idea of water
partage des eau
sharing and splitting 
drainage divide
it is a litle less poetic in english
the map of it is beautiful


what is interesting is that it is a map of flows
and it is made of...
it is kind of the graph of flows
and what is related to the other
what is on the left and right

it is an orientation fo the water
to resist to go to the atlantic if you are here is going difficult
this plus the clouds
and it can put you on the other side of the divide
there is something about clouds helping you to change orientation

with the underground reservoirs, the thickness can be 100s of kilometers
we talk about this and it is interesting
we are talking about a stock of water underground
the stocks are also traveling horizontally and they are not consistent between all the different layers
if the ground is here, in different layes water may be going in many directions
it misses most of the information

it is a myth

that's why there are ghost rivers
because it goes underground and goes 100 kilometers away
we have affluent
when a river diverges in the delta and sometimes far 

we have been tricked with static maps that conceal all these dynamics
a river is such movement
not a boundary

but sometimes it can be an obstacle

there is vibration
in cartography, rivers have variation of thickness
at one moment
more or less it is a decision
you decide that from that line, where the thickness is symbolic
it becomes a surface where the thickness is demonstrating the width of it
when it is more than 20 meters
suddenly it becomes a surface on the map
even the limits there are quite blurry

what you have with the line as a geographic entity is that you have direction
with a surface there is no direction

at the conference yesterday we had something about the thickness of borders
the fact that the channel and mediterrainean are borders
just very wide ones

we can imagine another border of the migration drainage divide

there are paths in the mediterrainean
three main routes used for migration

about meteorology 
the flows of hot and cold air are quite regular
there is a pattern all over the year
and the streams are moving 
in a particular way
and you can find the regularity
there are masses of cold streams in winter
it is not that free
the flows of air and clouds
they follow some routes

is it as a line?
it goes from left to right
west to east
and the hot air turns in a certain direction and the cold air in another and it flips when you go to the southern hemisphere
the reason of this i don't know
it is well known
there is a rule
physical rule that gives this inscription

there is this flow
and at some point you can decide to move or flip
there is also something that blocks you
and then you become a curve

does somebody know about fluid mechanics
it is when there is this thing
where you can work on how cars the blocking in traffic jam
when someone stops
there is delay
you were talking about flows and blockings
there was this flow of blood blocked by cells
like when you have a stroke
they are blocked and you try to flow

there was a reclaim the night demonstration
there have been some police violence against the women in the demonstration
because they entered the unesco zone, which is a place where you canot have demonstration
and you have the flow of tourists
i was also thinking about flow of people
when you see how people are turning around grand place
(a pilgrimage)
if you enter and you need to go against the flow of people visiting mannequin pis
everybody does the same
nobody is directing
and you go like this
the demonstration was countering that
there is nothing there
i tried to follow this flow

between the straight line and the curve 
we have this straight line and the control points
and the two objects that form a curve
just to encode this relationship
i want to come back to this idea of having an index
and relate it to direction
the compass can be a large index of how you make curves out of straightline
blocking a train could be a way to create a curve
and all these directions and ways of changing the world
to act on the flows and appropriate them
would form a world of options
and to navigate this world of options
you would have something that is not in degrees but a compass
if i start to block a train, in which direction am i going
the direction in this space would be the circle and the straight line
i want to encode things
i need objects to encode
the deviation from the flow
how it can start to tell something about what we do rather than what we are made to do and flow
as a way to empower

the flow has such a strength to it 
standing still, it is like water running
and you want to be still in it
it is quite difficult

what is before and after high frequency trade?

i don't want to explore myself
we were talking about topology
and you were drawing a typology of things
i thought that the two could maybe connect
what is a flow
what is going towrads what

taxonomy of clouds
it is a wide spread of thing to explain each kind of cloud
is it possible to get any kind of flow to fuck it up
the trajectory resistance manual

these functions are designed for logistics
we can see how logistics can be disrupted in a productive way

add the paper that explains why there are the four functions here:

stick maps:

answering the question, why do you make a map
why would you put a grid over the world
knowing the relationship between things from a personal perspective
this was the history of cartography

time & GIS

i am too old to spec!!!

what does it mean to spec?
in the specification of the PostGIS there were functions that were missing
that was our starting point

anything can be the source of a spec
it is a way to formalize that what you want to tell

is it like when you try to describe directions to someone?
with the same problem
naming things, giving direction

does the spec have to work?
this is the funny thing with
you usually have institutional bodies
and they specify the way to write specification
the name, the organization, the date, the version etc.
at the end of the day, a specification is useful for people, a formal way of organizing a field of action or research
it depends on who accepts it
it is not a norm
if we start to say that we have something to express the relationship between time A and time B
and there are three actions
three words to say a process
we put it on the web and say this is the specification
and somebody may accept it and take it
it is just a document

you can apply it to anything
we are a body of people
and we are entitled to produce specifications

femke wrote a piece on that
a guy a w3c having to write a spec
in front of the blank sheet
it is an imaginary internal process
on how to write about how to fill objects (how objects are painted) objects and lines

    flows/patterns/something so strong that can drag you along, taking you back to the straight line
    forward and behind
    straight and curve
    compass/GPX data with some data on orientation
    top and bottom
    we can express orientation with a (hue) color
    clouds/meteo: a way to change the orientation/dissolve/contrast
    lines that have direction but surfaces that don't

    This disorientation is partly due to the loss of a stable horizon. And with the loss of horizon also comes the departure of a stable paradigm of orientation, which has situated concepts of subject and object, of time and space, throughout modernity. In falling, the lines of the horizon shatter, twirl around, and superimpose.


    This transition was already apparent in the nineteenth century in the field of painting. One work in particular expresses the circumstances of this transformation: The Slave Ship (1840), by J. M. W. Turner. The scene in the painting represents a real incident: when the captain of a slave ship discovered that his insurance only covered slaves lost at sea, and not those dying or ill on board, he ordered all dying and sick slaves to be thrown overboard. Turner’s painting captures the moment where the slaves are beginning to go under.
In this painting, the horizon line, if distinguishable at all, is tilted, curved, and troubled. The observer has lost his stable position. There are no parallels that could converge at a single vanishing point. The sun, which is at the center of the composition, is multiplied in reflections. The observer is upset, displaced, beside himself at the sight of the slaves, who are not only sinking but have also had their bodies reduced to fragments—their limbs devoured by sharks, mere shapes below the water surface. At the sight of the effects of colonialism and slavery, linear perspective—the central viewpoint, the position of mastery, control, and subjecthood—is abandoned and starts tumbling and tilting, taking with it the idea of space and time as systematic constructions. The idea of a calculable and predictable future shows a murderous side through an insurance that prevents economic loss by inspiring cold-blooded murder. Space dissolves into mayhem on the unstable and treacherous surface of an unpredictable sea.
Turner experimented with moving perspectives early on. Legend has it that he had himself tied to the mast of a ship crossing from Dover to Calais, explicitly to watch the horizon change. In 1843 or 1844, he stuck his head out of the window of a moving train for exactly 9 minutes, the result of which was a painting called Rain, Steam, and Speed—The Great Western Railway (1844). In it, linear perspective dissolves into the background. There is no resolution, no vanishing point, and no clear view to any past or future. Again, more interesting is the perspective of the spectator himself, who seems to be dangling in the air on the outer side of the rails of a railroad bridge. There is no clear ground under his assumed position. He might be suspended in the mist, floating over an absent ground.


what is it mean to see from above and how do you flip?
there is no risk of visualizing that
there are examples

a way to turn is to do the specification
in the 

mathematics needs to know am i inside or outside of it
you are blindfolded, you land on the right of a fence
of a huge ranch in the US
and you don't know if you are in or outside
there are canyons
the only way to identify is to put a flag on one side and make a tour
and see if the flag is on the same side
always direction is indicated
cause we need to put islands on it
to make a whole
reverse fill
you reverse the direction

there is direction is not sara ahmed direction
but maybe yes

google maps: the map is from above
but if you go to google street view you can look at the sky fro the ground
to look at the clouds

can elevation be our direction
the orientation
what if we can go up
there is something about elevation being the direction

we were talking about the compass
wanting to fuck around with it

instead of the arrow going vertically, instead of horizontally

how do we change the orientation
orientation is placing yourself in relationship to other things

    when you are born you are a point
    as a child you are a line
    if you are girl, you become a triangle
    if you are a boy, you are a square
    if you are a priest, you are pentagon

minutes of the specification committee

    we are specifying a world that cannot have a map that is stable to look at
    we are specifying a new world of flows.


the flow of stillness

r: how can you perceive flow when you are in it?

j: i think you can

p: yesterday, i was thinking of creating a map, look at the map, and as much as you zoom it, you see it flow by the natural rotation of the earth
you see the globe still from above, and the more you zoom, you look at the moon with binoculars, you zoom to something, you are zooming too much, in fact it is moving
to be able to have the same impression in a map to be naturally stable

p: a component of the gaze would be the feeling of its motion

s: is it a parameter

p: it would be the result of it

j: it is what it is made off, the feeling of this motion

s: with flow, counter flow

p: the feeling of motion is a property of the descriptions of the objects we can have in this system/world/spec

are we flowing or not when we are looking at flows?





gaze(parameter gaze)

gaze: vertical, wave, peripheral, sailor gaze

gaze you have on a boat, the horizon is not important but the sides